Flying Over the Strings：The Bow and Transformations
The violin began playing an important role in the 16th century. Its complex bowing techniques and highly effective bow played a key role in how the violin was performed. The foundation for the violin's appearance was established in the 16th century, while the bow was still in a transformational period. The bow of the Baroque period was elegant, but performance improvements still needed to be made. By the middle of the 18th century, French bow maker Nicolas Pierre Tourte （c.1700-1764） had established the professional status of French bow makers. His eldest son Nicolas Léonard Tourte （1746-c.1807） and youngest son François Xavier Tourte （1748-1835） subsequently continued making Cramer style bow and made revolutionary changes developing the modern Viotti style bow, establishing the prototypical modern French bow. German and British bows also followed the basic techniques of the French one, while each nation's bows left distinct marks within the overall history of bows.